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The City was incorporated by the state in When Arkansas seceded from the Union in , Governor Rector ordered every available soldier in the state the state militia to Pocahontas. The obvious invasion route into Arkansas by Union forces from Missouri was along the Military Road Southwest Trail to the Port of Pocahontas with river transportation available into central Arkansas.
To the east of Pocahontas, the land was swampy and contained practically no roads.
To the west were the Ozarks—very rough terrain, again with few roads. The troops ordered to Pocahontas, organized as the Army of Northern Arkansas under General Hardee, soon fortified the City and ringed it with earthen works. Camp Shaver, the primary basic training camp for Confederate troops in Arkansas was established here.
The only Confederate military hospital in the state was established here as well. The Port of Pocahontas became the primary Confederate supply depot in Arkansas.
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In early, , the Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederacy was established. The Army of the West was created under Major General Earl Van Dorn and established its headquarters here—headquarters for all Confederate forces west of the Mississippi. The total Confederate forces in Pocahontas at that time exceeded 35, Later in , all Confederate forces in Arkansas were ordered into Tennessee to meet the advancing forces of General U.
This left Arkansas totally unprotected from Union forces in Missouri. Pocahontas and its region would soon pay the price for this.
History of New York City - Wikipedia
In early , Union forces captured Pocahontas and her port. The downtown commercial district and some residential areas were put to the torch by Union forces at that time.
Pocahontas would for the remainder of the war suffer greatly from the raids of marauders and bushwhackers lead by the infamous Quanta and others. Pocahontas recovered slowly from the devastation of the war. The city regained its economic importance and its autonomy through the feudal lords of Tuscany.
Since the 13th century the main rift was between the supporters of the Papacy Guelfi — Guelphs and of the Empire Ghibellini — Ghibelines ; for decades Florence was torn apart by civil wars until the strongest Ghibellini families were defeated and exiled their palaces were destroyed in the place where modern-day Piazza della Signoria is. But quite soon the Guelfi themselves split into two warring factions and the domestic struggles went on.
In the meantime, the city became richer and more populated and fought neighboring towns for control of Tuscany: the toughest enemies were Arezzo , Pistoia , Pisa on the coast and above all Siena. In , after the big defeat of Montaperti , Florence faced destruction but at the end succeeded in destroying the power of Siena.
In Arezzo was also conquered in a battle at Campaldino , in which the famous Dante Alighieri fought.
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Dante was a poet and a writer and took part passionately in the political life of the city until his faction was defeated and he was exiled from Florence. In the meantime a powerful and clever family of bankers were increasing its power and wealth until they became the effective rulers of Firenze in The Medici. It was, however, also the during all of the this that the Florence Renaissance has begun. He was a great diplomat and kept the Italian states in peace and the peninsula free and independent.
After many clashes he was imprisoned and executed in in the Piazza della Signoria. So the Medici returned, but then were expelled again and Florence became a republic that was involved in the bloody wars between the French and the Spanish who both wanted to seize control of Italy. Cesare Borgia , a daring and violent prince and son of a corrupt Pope, tried to conquer the town, but failed.
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After years of conflict Florence was besieged by the mighty army of Charles V of Spain in The great artist Michelangelo built new kinds of defenses for the fortresses, but to little aid and the city was forced to surrender, allowing the Medici could return and again seize absolute power. Cosimo was the new duke , a clever and intelligent prince, a loyal ally of Spain, but not a puppet.
In the following two centuries the city lived in peace and prosperity until the last of the Medici died without heirs in The new rulers were the Lorena family , of Austrian origin. Under the influence of the Age of Enlightenment they issued many reforms and forbade torture. In Tuscany was the first state to abolish the death penalty. After the French Revolution Florence spent 15 years under the Napoleonic rule , was involved in wars and rebellions and was even annexed for a while to France!
Williamsburg celebrated its th Anniversary in Williamsburg was one of America's first planned cities. Laid out in under the supervision of Governor Francis Nicholson, it was to be a "new and well-ordered city" suitable for the capital of the largest and most populous of the British colonies in America.
A succession of beautiful capitol buildings became home to the oldest legislative assembly in the New World. The young city grew quickly into the center of political, religious, economic and social life in Virginia. Williamsburg also became a center of learning. The first hospital established in America for the care and treatment of mental illness was founded in Williamsburg in
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